信用证:区分软条款和Non-Documentary Conditions

admin 2021-05-04 03:07 电商知识

前面一篇文章说到了信用证软条款。对于软条款,比较容易混淆的还有另外一种情况:Non-Documentary Conditions。

UCP 600 第14 条(h)条规定:

“If a credit contains conditions without stating the document(s) to be presented in compliance therewith, banks will deem such conditions as not stated and will disregard them.”
“如果信用证包含条件而没有说明根据该文件提交的文件,银行将认为这些条件未被声明,并将忽略它们。”

这项规定,要求银行简单地忽略 non-documentary conditions,在 1993 年出版的 UCP 500 第13(c)条中首次引入。

信用证中 Non-Documentary Conditions 的一些例子:

“Products need to be shipped 1,000 unit per case (必须一箱装1000个)”“Products must be manufactured in China (必须是中国产)”“Goods must be with solid quality (必须质量可靠)”“The materials of products not contain Latex (所有产品的材料中不含乳胶)”“Goods must be shipped on vessels not older than fifteen years (货物必须在不超过十五年的船舶上运输)”“Copies of shipping documents to be sent by beneficiary immediately after shipment to the applicant by courier (发货后尽快寄出一份运输单据副本给开证申请人)”“Shipment samples to be send directly to the buyers as soon aspossible by courier after shipment (大货样必须装货后尽快寄出)”

所有这些条款语句被认为是 Non-Documentary Conditions。换句话说,没有要求实际的文件来体现出:满足了信用证的具体要求。

从单据上来说,上面的要求应该被写成:

Packing List 2 originals and 2 copies indicated the products packing way and quantity.1 original and 1 copy of Origin Certificate Form AInspection Certificate of Quality issued by Commodity Inspection Bureau of P.R.CThe commercial invoice and packing list must states that the materials of all products do not contain Latex.A report issued by steamship company stating its age not surpass 15 years.(这就是软条款了)Beneficiary’s Certificate to state that one set of non-negotiable shipping documents must be sent to the applicant within 07(seven) days after the shipment of goods.A declaration document stating all shipping samples has been send directly to the applicant at least 10 days before date of shipment.

Non-Documentary Conditions,它并非等于软条款。有些 condition 属于软条款,有些则不是。比如上面第5点,我们用 documentary condition 来一转化,就直接是软条款了。而其他的则都不算软条款。简单来说,Non-Documentary Conditions 就是信用证上的某些条款要求,并非基于单据(documentary condition),这会增加相符交单的难度以及通知行审单的困惑。

好了,经过基本的介绍之后,相信你大概了解了什么是 Non-Documentary Conditions。我们再举两个小例子:

1)Products should be latex-free with clean packing material. Each must be packed with a printed box with two-sides label on it.

这你妹的到底让我提交什么交单单据?客户如果不改,你只能尽量在发票、箱单甚至提单上,照抄这句话了:Products are all latex-free with clean packing material. Each is packed with a printed box with two-sides label on it.

2)One set of non-negotiable shipping documents must be sent to the applicant within 07(seven) days after the shipment of goods.

这么眼熟,这是受益人证明吗?并不是,这就是典型的 Non-Documentary Conditions。规定了要做什么,但是交单的时候没有单据可以体现出来出口商已经做了。

你说快递单(aiwaybill) 可以证明? 这也证明不了,谁知道你寄的是什么?就算快递单可以证明,信用证要求提交快递单了吗?NO。快递报关发票?拜托,货值超过 5000 RMB 的物品才做发票,文件的快递不用发票直接寄。还是那个问题,信用证要求提交快递发票了吗?NO。

这个 Non-Documentary Conditions 跟受益人证明有什么区别?就缺了几个字:Beneficiary’s Certificate stating..  即在什么单据上体现。

好了,我相信你基本已经明白了。就像会计只认账本一样,银行审证也只认单据。你的信用证上的条款,也要尽量落实到单据上来。如果不落实到单据上,你规定的东西再多,银行也不知道如何审核是否出口商已经完完全全地按照信用证的规定履行了交单。

当你发现对方开证行开来的信用证条款似乎像是 non-documentary conditions 时,为了保险起见,你可以根据信用证中的要求改写成以单据为条件的语言。简单来说,就是确保信用证上的任何条款要求,都是基于 document,并且你能够提交的单据 comply with these conditions.

如果对方不同意改写,你需要注意交单时是否会因这种模糊的语言而造成对开证行认为单据没有达到“相符”。虽然 UCP 600 中已提及对于 Non-Documentary Conditions,银行可以忽略,但实际外贸业务中,银行仍可能作为不符点处理。不同的银行,人员专业水平有限,而且也很难让全世界各个银行都严格遵照 UCP 600 来处理。

所以,我们需要注意的是,如果对方的信用证里有某个条款疑似 non-documentary condition,对方又不愿意改证,那么你就要小心了,最好反复要求客户修改条款,否则不交单。

如果非要交单,那么记住一定要这样做:

比如:客户的 non-documentary condition 是这么一句:The goods are manufactured under the circustance of ……

在交单的单据上,如合同,装箱单,各种有留白的地方注明:The conditons in Letter of Credit 47A “The goods are manufactured under the circustance of ……”  has been met.

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